Business Process Cooperation Viewpoint

Purpose: Designing, deciding

Concerns: Dependencies between business processes, consistency and completeness, responsibilities

Scope: Multiple layer/Multiple aspect

The business process cooperation viewpoint is used to show the relationships of one or more business processes with each other and/or with their environment. It can be used both to create a high-level design of business processes within their context and to provide an operational manager responsible for one or more such processes with insight into their dependencies. Important aspects of business process cooperation are:

  • Causal relationships between the main business processes of the enterprise
  • Mapping of business processes onto business functions
  • Realization of services by business processes
  • Use of shared data

Each of these can be regarded as a “sub-viewpoint” of the business process cooperation viewpoint.


Organization Viewpoint

Concerns: Identification of competencies, authority, and responsibilities
Purpose: Designing, deciding, informing
Scope: Single layer/Single aspect

The organization viewpoint focuses on the (internal) organization of a company, department, network of companies, or of another organizational entity. It is possible to present models in this viewpoint as nested block diagrams, but also in a more traditional way, such as organizational charts. The organization viewpoint is very useful in identifying competencies, authority, and responsibilities in an organization.


Application Cooperation Viewpoint

Concerns: Relationships and dependencies between applications, orchestration/choreography of services, consistency and completeness, reduction of complexity
Purpose: Designing
Scope: Multiple layer/Multiple aspect

The application cooperation viewpoint describes the relationships between applications components in terms of the information flows between them, or in terms of the services they offer and use. This viewpoint is typically used to create an overview of the application landscape of an organization. This viewpoint is also used to express the (internal) cooperation or orchestration of services that together support the execution of a business process.

Abstraction Level
Coherence, details

Application layer

Behavior, active structure, passive structure



Technology Viewpoint : Archimate

Concerns: Stability, security, dependencies, costs of the infrastructure
Purpose: Designing
Scope: Single layer/Multiple aspect

The technology viewpoint contains the software and hardware technology elements supporting the Application Layer, such as physical devices, networks, or system software (e.g., operating systems, databases, and middleware).

Technology Usage Viewpoint : Archimate

Concerns: Dependencies, performance, scalability
Purpose: Designing
Scope: Multiple layer/Multiple aspect

The technology usage viewpoint shows how applications are supported by the software and hardware technology: the technology services are delivered by the devices; system software and networks are provided to the applications. This viewpoint plays an important role in the analysis of performance and scalability, since it relates the physical infrastructure to the logical world of applications. It is very useful in determining the performance and quality requirements on the infrastructure based on the demands of the various applications that use it.

Service Realization Viewpoint : Archimate

Concerns: Added-value of business processes, consistency and completeness, responsibilities
Purpose: Designing, deciding
Scope: Multiple layer/Multiple aspect

The service realization viewpoint is used to show how one or more business services are realized by the underlying processes (and sometimes by application components). Thus, it forms the bridge between the business products viewpoint and the business process view. It provides a “view from the outside” on one or more business processes.

Physical Viewpoint : Archimate

Concerns: Relationships and dependencies of the physical environment and how this relates to IT infrastructure
Purpose: Designing
Scope: Multiple layer/Multiple aspect

The physical viewpoint contains equipment (one or more physical machines, tools, or instruments) that can create, use, store, move, or transform materials, how the equipment is connected via the distribution network, and what other active elements are assigned to the equipment.

Implement Migration Viewpoint : Archimate

Concerns: Architecture vision and policies, motivation
Purpose: Deciding, informing
Scope: Multiple layer/Multiple aspect

The implementation and migration viewpoint is used to relate programs and projects to the parts of the architecture that they implement. This view allows modeling of the scope of programs, projects, project activities in terms of the plateaus that are realized or the individual architecture elements that are affected. In addition, the way the elements are affected may be indicated by annotating the relationships.

Furthermore, this viewpoint can be used in combination with the programs and projects viewpoint to support portfolio management:

  • The programs and projects viewpoint is suited to relate business goals to programs and projects. For example, this makes it possible to analyze at a high level whether all business goals are covered sufficiently by the current portfolio(s).
  • The implementation and migration viewpoint is suited to relate business goals (and requirements) via programs and projects to (parts of) the architecture. For example, this makes it possible to analyze potential overlap between project activities or to analyze the consistency between project dependencies and dependencies among plateaus or architecture elements.