A. Glossary of Supplementary Definitions
This appendix contains additional definitions to supplement the definitions contained in 3. Definitions.
A.1 Access Control (AC)
A security service that ensures only those users with the correct rights can access a specific device, application, or data.
A high-level computer programming language developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and widely used within the DoD and NATO countries. It is used for real-time processing, is modular in nature, and includes object-oriented features.
A.3 Application Component
An encapsulation of application functionality aligned to implementation structure. For example, a purchase request processing application.
See also A.50 Logical Application Component and A.63 Physical Application Component.
A.4 Application Software
Software entities which have a specific business purpose.
In the context of IT systems, the probability that system functional capabilities are ready for use by a user at any time, where all time is considered, including operations, repair, administration, and logistic time. Availability is further defined by system category for both routine and priority operations.
A.6 Batch Processing
Processing data or the accomplishment of jobs accumulated in advance in such a manner that each accumulation thus formed is processed or accomplished in the same computer run.
A.7 Business System
Hardware, software, policy statements, processes, activities, standards, and people which together implement a business function.
A structured list of architectural outputs of a similar kind, used for reference. For example, a technology standards catalog or an application portfolio.
An application component which requests services from a server.
An acronym for Control OBjectives for Information and related Technology, created by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) and the IT Governance Institute (ITGI), which provides a set of recommended best practices for the governance/management of information systems and technology.
A.11 Communications Network
A set of products, concepts, and services that enable the connection of computer systems for the purpose of transmitting data and other forms (e.g., voice and video) between the systems.
A.12 Communications Node
A node that is either internal to the communications network (e.g., routers, bridges, or repeaters) or located between the end device and the communications network to operate as a gateway.
A.13 Communications System
A set of assets (transmission media, switching nodes, interfaces, and control devices) that will establish linkage between users and devices.
A.14 Composite Application
An application component that is created by composing other atomic or composite applications.
A.15 Configuration Management
A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to:
- Identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item
- Control changes to those characteristics
- Record and report changes to processing and implementation status
Also, the management of the configuration of enterprise architecture practice (intellectual property) assets and baselines and the control of change over of those assets.
A.16 Connectivity Service
A service area of the external environment entity of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that provides end-to-end connectivity for communications through three transport levels (global, regional, and local). It provides general and application-specific services to platform end devices.
An agreement between a service consumer and a service provider that establishes functional and non-functional parameters for interaction.
A decision-making step with accompanying decision logic used to determine execution approach for a process or to ensure that a process complies with governance criteria. For example, a sign-off control on the purchase request processing process that checks whether the total value of the request is within the sign-off limits of the requester, or whether it needs escalating to higher authority.
The chief officer within a particular function of the business; e.g., Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Information Officer, Chief Technology Officer.
A.20 Data Dictionary
A specialized type of database containing metadata; a repository of information describing the characteristics of data used to design, monitor, document, protect, and control data in information systems and databases; an application system supporting the definition and management of database metadata.
A.21 Data Element
A basic unit of information having a meaning and that may have subcategories (data items) of distinct units and values.
A.22 Data Entity
An encapsulation of data that is recognized by a business domain expert as a thing. Logical data entities can be tied to applications, repositories, and services and may be structured according to implementation considerations.
A.23 Data Interchange Service
A service of the platform entity of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that provides specialized support for the interchange of data between applications on the same or different platforms.
A.24 Data Management Service
A service of the platform entity of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that provides support for the management, storage, access, and manipulation of data in a database.
A structured or organized collection of data entities, which is be accessed by a computer.
A.26 Database Management System
A computer application program that accesses or manipulates the database.
A.27 Directory Service
A technology component that provides locator services that find the location of a service, or the location of data, or translation of a common name into a network-specific address. It is analogous to telephone books and may be implemented in centralized or distributed schemes.
A.28 Distributed Database
- A database that is not stored in a central location but is dispersed over a network of interconnected computers.
- A database under the overall control of a central Database Management System (DBMS) but whose storage devices are not all attached to the same processor.
- A database that is physically located in two or more distinct locations.
An external or internal condition that motivates the organization to define its goals. An example of an external driver is a change in regulation or compliance rules which, for example, require changes to the way an organization operates; i.e., Sarbanes-Oxley in the US.
A.30 End User
Person who ultimately uses the computer application or output.
A.31 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System
A complete suite of integrated applications that support the major business support functions of an organization; e.g., Financial (AP/AR/GL), HR, Payroll, Stock, Order Processing and Invoicing, Purchasing, Logistics, Manufacturing, etc.
An organizational state change that triggers processing events may originate from inside or outside the organization and may be resolved inside or outside the organization.
A.33 External Environment Interface (EEI)
The interface that supports information transfer between the application platform and the external environment.
An acronym for FORmula TRANslator, which is a high-level computer language used extensively in scientific and engineering applications.
A.35 Functional Decomposition
A hierarchy of the functions of an enterprise or organization.
A high-level statement of intent or direction for an organization. Typically used to measure success of an organization.
An architectural document that provides guidance on the optimal ways to carry out design or implementation activities.
The physical infrastructure needed to run software; e.g., servers, workstations, network equipment, etc.
A.39 Human Computer Interface (HCI)
Hardware and software allowing information exchange between the user and the computer.
A.40 Information Domain
Grouping of information (or data entities) by a set of criteria such as security classification, ownership, location, etc. In the context of security, information domains are defined as a set of users, their information objects, and a security policy.
A.41 Information System (IS)
The computer (or IT)-based portion of a business system.
A.42 Information System Service
The automated elements of a business service. An information system service may deliver or support part or all of one or more business services.
A relationship between architectural building blocks (i.e., services or components) that embodies communication or usage.
A.44 Interaction Model
An architectural view, catalog, or matrix that shows a particular type of interaction. For example, a diagram showing application integration.
Interconnection and inter-relationships between, for example, people, systems, devices, applications, or the user and an application or device.
An acronym for Information Technology Infrastructure Library, which provides a set of recommended best practices for the governance/management of information systems and technology.
A.47 Key Performance Indicator (KPI)
A way of quantifying the performance of the business or project.
The period of time that begins when a system is conceived and ends when the system is no longer available for use.
A place where business activity takes place and can be hierarchically decomposed.
A.50 Logical Application Component
An encapsulation of application functionality that is independent of a particular implementation. For example, the classification of all purchase request processing applications implemented in an enterprise.
A.51 Logical Data Component
A boundary zone that encapsulates related data entities to form a logical location to be held. For example, external procurement information.
A.52 Logical Technology Component
An encapsulation of technology infrastructure that is independent of a particular product. A class of technology product. For example, supply chain management software as part of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) suite or a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) purchase request processing enterprise service.
A.53 Managing Successful Programs (MSP)
A best practice methodology for program management, developed by the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC).
A format for showing the relationship between two (or more) architectural elements in a grid format.
An indicator or factor that can be tracked, usually on an ongoing basis, to determine success or alignment with objectives and goals.
A metaview acts as a pattern or template of the view, from which to develop individual views. A metaview establishes the purposes and audience for a view, the ways in which the view is documented (e.g., for visual modeling), and the ways in which it is used (e.g., for analysis).
See also 3.76 Viewpoint in 3. Definitions.
A.57 Multimedia Service
A service of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that provides the capability to manipulate and manage information products consisting of text, graphics, images, video, and audio.
A.58 Open Specifications
Public specifications that are maintained by an open, public consensus process to accommodate new technologies over time and that are consistent with international standards.
A.59 Open System
A system that implements sufficient open specifications for interfaces, services, and supporting formats to enable properly engineered application software:
- To be ported with minimal changes across a wide range of systems
- To interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems
- To interact with users in a style that facilitates user portability
A.60 Operational Governance
Operational governance looks at the operational performance of systems against contracted performance levels, the definition of operational performance levels, and the implementation of systems that ensure effective operation of systems.
See also 3.39 Governance in 3. Definitions.
A.61 Operating System Service
A core service of the application platform entity of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that is needed to operate and administer the application platform and provide an interface between the application software and the platform (for example, file management, input/output, print spoolers).
A.62 Packaged Services
Services that are acquired from the market from a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) vendor, rather than being constructed via code build.
A.63 Physical Application Component
An application, application module, application service, or other deployable component of functionality. For example, a configured and deployed instance of a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) supply chain management application.
A.64 Physical Data Component
A boundary zone that encapsulates related data entities to form a physical location to be held. For example, a purchase order business object, comprising purchase order header and item business object nodes.
A.65 Physical Technology Component
A specific technology infrastructure product or technology infrastructure product instance. For example, a particular product version of a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solution, or a specific brand and version of server.
- The ease with which a system, component, data, or user can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
- A quality metric that can be used to measure the relative effort to transport the software for use in another environment or to convert software for use in another operating environment, hardware configuration, or software system environment.
The complete set of change activities or systems that exist within the organization or part of the organization. For example, application portfolio and project portfolio.
An acronym for PRojects IN Controlled Environments, which is a standard project management method.
A process represents a sequence of activities that together achieve a specified outcome, can be decomposed into sub-processes, and can show operation of a function or service (at next level of detail). Processes may also be used to link or compose organizations, functions, services, and processes.
Output generated by the business. The business product of the execution of a process.
A set of one or more base standards and, where applicable, the identification of those classes, subsets, options, and parameters of those base standards, necessary for accomplishing a particular function.
Identifying standards and characteristics of a particular system.
A co-ordinated set of change projects that deliver business benefit to the organization.
A single change project which delivers business benefit to the organization.
A.75 Risk Management
The management of risks and issues that may threaten the success of the enterprise architecture practice and its ability to meet is vision, goals, and objectives, and, importantly, its service provision.
- Risk management is described in Part III, 31. Risk Management.
The ability to use the same application software on many different classes of hardware/software platforms from PCs to super-computers (extends the portability concept). The capability to grow to accommodate increased work loads.
Services which protect data, ensuring its confidentiality, availability, and integrity.
An application component which responds to requests from a client.
A logical representation of a repeatable business activity that has a specified outcome. A service is self-contained, may be composed of other services, and is a "black box" to its consumers. Examples are "check customer credit", "provide weather data", and "consolidate drilling reports".
A.80 Service Quality
A preset configuration of non-functional attributes that may be assigned to a service or service contract.
An acronym for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound, which is an approach to ensure that targets and objectives are set in a way that can be achieved and measured.
A.82 Supplier Management
The management of suppliers of products and services to the enterprise architecture practice in concert with larger corporate procurement activities.
A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions (source: ISO/IEC 42010:2007).
A.84 System and Network Management Service
A cross-category service of the application platform entity of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that provides for the administration of the overall information system. These services include the management of information, processors, networks, configurations, accounting, and performance.
A.85 System Stakeholder
An individual, team, or organization (or classes thereof) with interests in, or concerns relative to, a system (source: ISO/IEC 42010:2007).
A.86 Technology Component
An encapsulation of technology infrastructure that represents a class of technology product or specific technology product.
A.87 Time Period
The timeframe over which the potential impact is to be measured.
Interaction between a user and a computer in which the user inputs a command to receive a specific result from the computer.
A.89 Transaction Sequence
Order of transactions required to accomplish the desired results.
A view of organization, application, or product functionality that illustrates capabilities in context with the user of that capability.
- Any person, organization, or functional unit that uses the services of an information processing system.
- In a conceptual schema language, any person or any thing that may issue or receive commands and messages to or from the information system.
A.92 User Interface Service
A service of the application platform entity of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that supports direct human-machine interaction by controlling the environment in which users interact with applications.
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